Πιτσιμπουργκο

https://i2.wp.com/www.perizitito.gr/images/T/b110825.jpgΗ Σωτη Τριανταφυλλου ειναι ισως η πιο αγαπημενη μου συγγραφεας της δικης μου γενιας. Η γραφη της με συνεπαιρνει. Οι ιστορικες της γνωσεις με αφηνoυν αφωνη. Δεν εχω χασει βιβλιο για βιβλιο της, αρχης γενομενης με το “Εργοστασιο των Μολυβιων” . Ετσι μολις εμαθα για το βιβλιαρακι “Πιτσιμπουργκο” εσπευσα να το παραγγειλω. Ειναι ενα θαυμα το πως μπορουν μερικοι λογοτεχνες να συνδιαζουν την ιστορια, τη λαογραφια και τον λογο σε τετοια επιπεδα.

Το Πιτσιμπουργκο ειναι μια σειρα γραμματων ενος μεταναστη Χιωτη ατο Πιτσμπουργκ της Πενσυλβανιας και της γυναικας του που εχει παραμεινει στο νησι περιμενοντας προσκληση και εισητηριο για να παει κι εκεινη κοντα του. Χρονολογικα ειναι τοποθετημενο τα ετη 1913-14 στα χρονια του πρωτου παγκοσμιου πολεμου. Ο Δημοστενης και η Ελεγκω γραφουν με την παλια Χιακη διαλεκτο που προσωπικα την εχω ακουσει στο νησι απο μεγαλους ανθρωπους. Ετσι πραγματικα ταυτιστικα με το μικρο αυτο βιβλιαρακι.

Περα ομως απο αυτο το καταπληκτικο λαογραφικο χαρακτηριστικο, η ιστορια τηε εποχης εκεινης με τις μεγαλες μετακινησεις και την αρχη των μεταναστευσεων που χαρακτηριζαν το νησι κανει τον αναγνωστη να μη το αφησει παρα μονο οταν φτασει στο τελος.

Το Πιτσιμπουργκο ειναι εκδοση του οικου Αιγεας της περιφημης Απλωταριας της πολης της Χιου. Ο εκδοτικος οικος σταγαζεταοι στο βιβλιοπωλειο Παπυρος οπου το Δεσποιναριον περνα πολλες ευχαριστες ωρες οταν βρισκεται κατω στην πολη, διαλεγοντας τις χειμωνιατικες παρεες της.

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Unlocking Mysteries of the Parthenon

From the Smithsonian web page

Unlocking Mysteries of the Parthenon

Efforts to restore the ancient temple of Athena are yielding new insights

    By Evan Hadingham
    Smithsonian magazine, February 2008
    During the past 2,500 years, the Parthenon—the apotheosis of ancient Greek architecture—has been rocked by earthquakes, set on fire, shattered by exploding gunpowder, looted for its stunning sculptures and defaced by misguided preservation efforts. Amazingly, the ancient
    A restoration project funded by the Greek government and the European Union is now entering its 33rd year, as archaeologists, architects, civil engineers and craftsmen strive not simply to imitate the workmanship of the ancient Greeks but to re-create it. They have had to become forensic architects, reconstructing long-lost techniques to answer questions that archaeologists and classical scholars have debated for centuries. How did the Athenians construct their mighty temple, an icon of Western civilization, in less than a decade—apparently without an overall building plan? How did they manage to incorporate subtle visual elements into the Parthenon’s layout and achieve such faultless proportions and balance? And how were the Parthenon’s builders able to work at a level of precision (in some cases accurate to within a fraction of a millimeter) without the benefit of modern tools? “We’re not as good as they were,” Lena Lambrinou, an architect on the restoration project, observes with a sigh. Athenians built the Parthenon in just eight or nine years. Repairing it is taking a bit longer.
    If the Parthenon represents “the supreme effort of genius in pursuit of beauty,” as the 19th-century French engineer and architectural historian Auguste Choisy declared, at the moment it looks more like a construction site. Ancient masonry hides behind thickets of scaffolding, planks and steel poles. Miniature rail tracks connect sheds that house lathes, marble cutters and other power equipment. In the Parthenon’s innermost sanctuary, once the home of a massive ivory-and-gold statue of Athena, a gigantic collapsible crane turns on a concrete platform.

    Though heavy equipment dominated the hilltop, I also found restorers working with the delicacy of diamond cutters. In one shed, I watched a mason toiling on a fresh block of marble. He was one of some 70 craftsmen recruited for the project from Greece’s sole remaining traditional marble school, located on the island of Tinos. His technique was exacting. To make the new block exactly match an old, broken one, the mason used a simple pointing device—the three-dimensional equivalent of a pantograph, which is a drafting instrument for precisely copying a sketch or blueprint—to mark and transfer every bump and hollow from the ancient stone to its counterpart surface on the fresh block. On some of the largest Parthenon blocks, which exceed ten tons, the masons use a mechanized version of the pointing device, but repairing a single block can still take more than three months. The ancient workers were no less painstaking; in many cases, the joints between the blocks are all but invisible, even under a magnifying glass.

    The Parthenon was part of an ambitious building campaign on the Acropolis that began around 450 b.c. A generation before, the Athenians, as part of an alliance of Greek city-states, had led heroic victories against Persian invaders. This alliance would evolve into a de facto empire under Athenian rule, and some 150 to 200 cities across the Aegean began paying Athens huge sums of what amounted to protection money. Basking in glory, the Athenians planned their new temple complex on a lavish, unprecedented scale—with the Parthenon as the centerpiece. Surviving fragments of the financial accounts, which were inscribed in stone for public scrutiny, have prompted estimates of the construction budget that range from around 340 to 800 silver talents—a considerable sum in an age when a single talent could pay a month’s wages for 170 oarsmen on a Greek warship. The Parthenon’s base was 23,028 square feet (about half the size of a football field) and its 46 outer columns were some 34 feet high. A 525-foot frieze wrapped around the top of the exterior wall of the building’s inner chamber. Several scholars have argued that the frieze shows a procession related to the quadrennial Great Panathenaia, or the festival “of all the Athenians.” By incorporating this scene of civic celebration, the scholars suggest, the Parthenon served not merely as an imperial propaganda statement but also as an expression of Athens’ burgeoning democracy—the will of the citizens who had voted to fund this exceptional monument.

    When the current restoration effort began in 1975, backed by $23 million from the Greek government, the project’s directors believed they could finish in ten years. But unforeseen problems arose as soon as workers started disassembling the temples. For example, the ancient Greek builders had secured the marble blocks together with iron clamps fitted in carefully carved grooves. They then poured molten lead over the joints to cushion them from seismic shocks and protect the clamps from corrosion. But when a Greek architect, Nikolas Balanos, launched an enthusiastic campaign of restorations in 1898, he installed crude iron clamps, indiscriminately fastening one block to another and neglecting to add the lead coating. Rain soon began to play havoc with the new clamps, swelling the iron and cracking the marble. Less than a century later, it was clear that parts of the Parthenon were in imminent danger of collapse.

    Until September 2005, the restoration’s coordinator was Manolis Korres, associate professor of architecture at the National Technical University of Athens and a leading Parthenon scholar. He has spent decades poring over every detail of the temple’s construction. In a set of vivid drawings, he depicted how the ancient builders extracted some 100,000 tons of marble from a quarry 11 miles northeast of central Athens, roughly shaped the blocks, then transported them on wagons and finally hauled them up the steep slopes of the Acropolis. Yet all that grueling labor, Korres contends, was dwarfed by the time and energy lavished on fine-tuning the temple’s finished appearance. Carving the long vertical grooves, or flutes, that run down each of the Parthenon’s main columns was probably as costly as all the quarrying, hauling and assembly combined.

    Today’s restorers have been replacing damaged column segments with fresh marble. To speed up the job, engineers built a flute-carving machine. The device, however, is not precise enough for the final detailing, which must be done by hand. This smoothing of the flutes calls for an expert eye and a sensitive touch. To get the elliptical profile of the flute just right, a mason looks at the shadow cast inside the groove, then chips and rubs the stone until the outline of the shadow is a perfectly even and regular curve.

    The ancients spent a lot of time on another finishing touch. After the Parthenon’s exposed marble surfaces had been smoothed and polished, they added a final, subtle texture—a stippling pattern—that Korres says dulled the shine on the marble and masked its flaws. With hundreds of thousands of chisel blows, they executed this pattern in precisely ordered rows covering the base, floors, columns and most other surfaces. “This was surely one of the most demanding tasks,” Korres says. “It may have taken as much as a quarter of the total construction time expended on the monument.”

    With such fanatical attention to detail, how could the Parthenon’s architects have finished the job in a mere eight or nine years, ending somewhere between 438 and 437 b.c.? (The dates come from the inscribed financial accounts.) One key factor may have been naval technology. Since the Athenians were the greatest naval power in the Aegean, they likely had unrivaled mastery of ropes, pulleys and wooden cranes. Such equipment would have been essential for hauling and lifting marble blocks.

    Another, counterintuitive possibility is that ancient hand tools were superior to their modern counterparts. After analyzing marks left on the marble surfaces, Korres is convinced that centuries of metallurgical experimentation enabled the ancient Athenians to create chisels and axes that were sharper and more durable than those available today. (The idea is not unprecedented. Modern metallurgists have only recently figured out the secrets of the traditional samurai sword, which Japanese swordsmiths endowed with unrivaled sharpness and strength by regulating the amount of carbon in the steel and the temperature during forging and cooling.) Korres concludes that the ancient masons, with their superior tools, could carve marble at more than double the rate of speed of today’s craftsmen. And the Parthenon’s original laborers had the benefit of experience, drawing on a century and a half of temple-building know-how.

    Moreover, the restoration team has confronted problems that their ancient Greek counterparts could never have contemplated. During the Great Turkish War in the late 17th century—when the Ottoman Empire was battling several European countries—Greece was an occupied nation. The Turks turned the Parthenon into an ammunition dump. During a Venetian attack on Athens in 1687, a cannonball set off the Turkish munitions, blowing apart the long walls of the Parthenon’s inner chamber. More than 700 blocks from those walls—eroded over time—now lay strewn around the Acropolis. For five years, beginning in 1997, Cathy Paraschi, a Greek-American architect on the restoration project, struggled to fit the pieces together, hunting for clues such as the shape and depth of the cuttings in the blocks that once held the ancient clamps. Eventually, she abandoned her computer database, which proved inadequate for capturing the full complexity of the puzzle. “Some days were exhilarating,” she told me, “when we finally got one piece to fit another. Other days I felt like jumping off the Acropolis.” In the end, she and her co-workers managed to identify the original positions of some 500 of the blocks.

    Another, counterintuitive possibility is that ancient hand tools were superior to their modern counterparts. After analyzing marks left on the marble surfaces, Korres is convinced that centuries of metallurgical experimentation enabled the ancient Athenians to create chisels and axes that were sharper and more durable than those available today. (The idea is not unprecedented. Modern metallurgists have only recently figured out the secrets of the traditional samurai sword, which Japanese swordsmiths endowed with unrivaled sharpness and strength by regulating the amount of carbon in the steel and the temperature during forging and cooling.) Korres concludes that the ancient masons, with their superior tools, could carve marble at more than double the rate of speed of today’s craftsmen. And the Parthenon’s original laborers had the benefit of experience, drawing on a century and a half of temple-building know-how.

    Moreover, the restoration team has confronted problems that their ancient Greek counterparts could never have contemplated. During the Great Turkish War in the late 17th century—when the Ottoman Empire was battling several European countries—Greece was an occupied nation. The Turks turned the Parthenon into an ammunition dump. During a Venetian attack on Athens in 1687, a cannonball set off the Turkish munitions, blowing apart the long walls of the Parthenon’s inner chamber. More than 700 blocks from those walls—eroded over time—now lay strewn around the Acropolis. For five years, beginning in 1997, Cathy Paraschi, a Greek-American architect on the restoration project, struggled to fit the pieces together, hunting for clues such as the shape and depth of the cuttings in the blocks that once held the ancient clamps. Eventually, she abandoned her computer database, which proved inadequate for capturing the full complexity of the puzzle. “Some days were exhilarating,” she told me, “when we finally got one piece to fit another. Other days I felt like jumping off the Acropolis.” In the end, she and her co-workers managed to identify the original positions of some 500 of the blocks.

    No matter the motivation for these refinements, many early scholars assumed that crafting such visual elements imposed tremendous extra demands on the Parthenon’s architects and masons. (One wrote of the “terrifying complications” involved.) No architectural manuals survive from the Classical Greek era, but today’s experts suspect the temple builders could add curves and inclined angles with a few relatively simple surveying tricks. “If you’re building without mortar, every block…must be trimmed by hand,” notes Oxford University archaeologist Jim Coulton. “Although tilts and curvatures would require careful supervision by the architect, they don’t add a lot to the workload.”

    Still, how could each column segment be measured so that all would fit together in a single, smoothly curving profile? The likely answer was found not in Athens but nearly 200 miles away in southwestern Turkey. In the town of Didyma rises one of the most impressive relics of the ancient world, the Temple of Apollo. Three of its 120 colossal columns still stand, each nearly twice the height of the Parthenon’s. The wealthy trading city of Miletus commissioned the temple in the age of Alexander the Great, around 150 years after the Parthenon’s completion. The gigantic ruins testify to a project of grandiose ambition: it was never finished despite 600 years of construction efforts. But thanks to its unfinished state, crucial evidence was preserved on temple walls that had not yet undergone their final polishing.

    A few years after the Parthenon restoration began, University of Pennsylvania scholar Lothar Haselberger was on a field trip exploring the Temple of Apollo’s innermost sanctuary. He noticed what seemed to be patterns of faint scratches on the marble walls. In the blinding morning sunlight the scratches are all but invisible, as I discovered to my initial frustration when I searched for them. After the sun had swung around and began grazing the surface, however, a delicate web of finely engraved lines started to emerge. Haselberger recalls, “All of a sudden I spotted a series of circles that corresponded precisely to the shape of a column base, the very one at the front of the temple.” He realized he had discovered the ancient equivalent of an architect’s blueprint.

    Then, just above the outline of the column base, Haselberger noticed a pattern of horizontal lines with a sweeping curve inscribed along one side. Could this be related to entasis, also evident in the towering Didyma columns? After carefully plotting the pattern, the answer became clear: it was a profile view of a column with the vertical dimension—the height of the column—reduced by a factor of 16. This scale drawing must have been a key reference for the masons as they carved out one column segment after another. By measuring along the horizontal lines to the edge of the curve, they would know exactly how wide each segment would have to be to create the smooth, bulging profile. Manolis Korres believes that the ancient Athenians probably relied on a carved scale drawing similar to the one at Didyma in building the columns of the Parthenon.

    Haselberger also traced a labyrinth of faint scratches covering most of the temple’s unfinished surfaces. The lines proved to be reference drawings for everything from the very slight inward lean of the walls to details of the lintel structure supported by the columns. There were even floor plans, drafted conveniently right on the floor. As the temple’s stepped platform rose, each floor plan was copied from one layer to the next. On the topmost floor, the builders marked out the positions of columns, walls and doorways.

    The discoveries at Didyma suggest that the temple builders operated on a “plan-as-you-go” basis. “Clearly, a lot of advance planning went into a building like the Parthenon,” Coulton says. “But it wasn’t planning in the sense that we’d recognize today. There’s no evidence they relied on a single set of plans and elevations drawn to scale as a modern architect would.”

    Still, the Parthenon remains something of a miracle. The builders were steered by tradition, yet free to experiment. They worked to extreme precision, yet the final result was anything but rigid. A commanding building, with supple and fluid lines, emerged from a blend of improvised solutions.

    But the miracle was short-lived. Only seven years after the construction of the Parthenon was completed, war broke out with Sparta. Within a generation, Athens suffered a humiliating defeat and a devastating plague. The story of the Parthenon resembles an ancient Greek tragedy, in which an exceptional figure suffers a devastating reversal of fortune. And from Korres’ perspective, that calamity is all the more reason to restore the greatest remnant of Athens’ golden age. “We wanted to preserve the beauty of what has survived these past 2,500 years,” he says. “A reminder of man’s power to create, as well as to destroy.”

    Evan Hadingham is senior science editor of PBS’s NOVAseries. The NOVA program “Secrets of the Parthenon” airs January 29, 2008.

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For Eleni

Γιατι ολα γινονται για μια Ελενη.


 

Ελένη (Γεωργιος Σεφερης)

ΤΕΥΚΡΟΣ: … ες γην εναλίαν Κύπρον, ου μ’ εθέσπισεν
οικείν Απόλλων, όνομα νησιωτικόν
Σαλαμίνα θέμενον της εκεί χάριν πάτρας.
…………………………………………………
ΕΛΕΝΗ: Ουκ ήλθον ες γην Τρωάδ’, αλλ’ είδωλον ην.
…………………………………………………
ΆΓΓΕΛΟΣ:Τι φης;
Νεφέλης άρ’ άλλως είχομεν πόνους πέρι;
ΕΥΡΙΠΙΔΗΣ, ΕΛΕΝΗ

“Τ’ αηδόνια δε σ’ αφήνουνε να κοιμηθείς στις Πλάτρες”.Αηδόνι ντροπαλό, μες στον ανασασμό των φύλλων,
συ που δωρίζεις τη μουσική δροσιά του δάσους
στα χωρισμένα σώματα και στις ψυχές
αυτών που ξέρουν πως δε θα γυρίσουν.
Τυφλή φωνή, που ψηλαφείς μέσα στη νυχτωμένη μνήμη
βήματα και χειρονομίες· δε θα τολμούσα να πω φιλήματα·
και το πικρό τρικύμισμα της ξαγριεμένης σκλάβας.”Τ’ αηδόνια δε σ’ αφήνουνε να κοιμηθείς στις Πλάτρες”.   

Ποιες είναι οι Πλάτρες; Ποιος το γνωρίζει τούτο το νησί;
Έζησα τη ζωή μου ακούγοντας ονόματα πρωτάκουστα:
καινούργιους τόπους, καινούργιες τρέλες των ανθρώπων
ή των θεών· η μοίρα μου που κυματίζει
ανάμεσα στο στερνό σπαθί ενός Αίαντα
και μιαν άλλη Σαλαμίνα
μ’ έφερε εδώ σ’ αυτό το γυρογιάλι. Το φεγγάρι
βγήκε απ’ το πέλαγο σαν Αφροδίτη·
σκέπασε τ’ άστρα του Τοξότη, τώρα πάει νά ‘βρει
την καρδιά του Σκορπιού, κι όλα τ’ αλλάζει.
Πού είν’ η αλήθεια;
Ήμουν κι εγώ στον πόλεμο τοξότης·
το ριζικό μου, ενός ανθρώπου που ξαστόχησε.

Αηδόνι ποιητάρη,
σαν και μια τέτοια νύχτα στ’ ακροθαλάσσι του Πρωτέα
σ’ άκουσαν οι σκλάβες Σπαρτιάτισσες κι έσυραν το θρήνο,
κι ανάμεσό τους -ποιος θα το ‘λεγε- η Ελένη!
Αυτή που κυνηγούσαμε χρόνια στο Σκάμαντρο.
Ήταν εκεί, στα χείλια της ερήμου· την άγγιξα, μου μίλησε:
“Δεν είν’ αλήθεια, δεν είν’ αλήθεια” φώναζε.
“Δεν μπήκα στο γαλαζόπλωρο καράβι.
Ποτέ δεν πάτησα την αντρειωμένη Τροία”.

Με το βαθύ στηθόδεσμο, τον ήλιο στα μαλλιά, κι αυτό το ανάστημα
ίσκιοι και χαμόγελα παντού
στους ώμους στους μηρούς στα γόνατα·
ζωντανό δέρμα, και τα μάτια
με τα μεγάλα βλέφαρα,
ήταν εκεί, στην όχθη ενός Δέλτα. Και στην Τροία;
Τίποτε στην Τροία – ένα είδωλο.
Έτσι το θέλαν οι θεοί.
Κι ο Πάρης, μ’ έναν ίσκιο πλάγιαζε σα νά ηταν πλάσμα ατόφιο·
κι εμείς σφαζόμασταν για την Ελένη δέκα χρόνια.

Μεγάλος πόνος είχε πέσει στην Ελλάδα.
Τόσα κορμιά ριγμένα
στα σαγόνια της θάλασσας στα σαγόνια της γης·
τόσες ψυχές
δοσμένες στις μυλόπετρες, σαν το σιτάρι.
Κι οι ποταμοί φουσκώναν μες στη λάσπη το αίμα
για ένα λινό κυμάτισμα για μια νεφέλη
μιας πεταλούδας τίναγμα το πούπουλο ενός κύκνου
για ένα πουκάμισο αδειανό, για μιαν Ελένη.
Κι ο αδερφός μου; Αηδόνι αηδόνι αηδόνι,
τ’ είναι θεός; τι μη θεός; και τι τ’ ανάμεσό τους;

“Τ’ αηδόνια δε σ’ αφήνουνε να κοιμηθείς στις Πλάτρες”.

Δακρυσμένο πουλί, στην Κύπρο τη θαλασσοφίλητη
που έταξαν για να μου θυμίζει την πατρίδα,
άραξα μοναχός μ’ αυτό το παραμύθι,
αν είναι αλήθεια πως αυτό ειναι παραμύθι,
αν είναι αλήθεια πως οι ανθρώποι δε θα ξαναπιάσουν
τον παλιό δόλο των θεών· αν είναι αλήθεια
πως κάποιος άλλος Τεύκρος, ύστερα από χρόνια,
ή κάποιος Αίαντας ή Πρίαμος ή Εκάβη
ή κάποιος άγνωστος, ανώνυμος, που ωστόσο
είδε ένα Σκάμαντρο να ξεχειλάει κουφάρια,
δεν το ‘χει μες στη μοίρα του ν’ ακούσει
μαντατοφόρους που έρχουνται να πούνε
πως τόσος πόνος τόση ζωή
πήγαν στην άβυσσο
για ένα πουκάμισο αδειανό για μιαν Ελένη.

TEUCER: …in sea-girt Cyprus, where Apollo bade me live, I built
the city of Salamis in memory of my homeland.
…………………………………………………………………..
HELEN: It was not I went to Troy, but an image.
…………………………………………………………………..
MESSENGER: What? Were all our pains then for a cloud?
“You cannot sleep in Platres for the nightingales”.
Shy nightingale, hidden among whispering leaves,
you bring the echoing coolness of the forest
to the sundered souls and bodies
of those who know there can be no return.
Blind voice, fumbling in the dark of memory
for footsteps, gestures, what I dare not call kisses,
and the slave-woman’s sullen anger.

“You cannot sleep in Platres for the nightingales”.

Where is Platres? Does anybody know this island?
All my life I’ve heard strange names,
new places, the latest foolishness
of men or gods;
my fate, weaving
between the final sword-thrust of some Ajax
and another Salamis,
brought me to this sea-coast.
The moon
rises out of the sea like Aphrodite,
covering Sagittarius, then seeks
the heart of Scorpio, changing everything.
Where is truth?
I too was an archer in those wars,
my fate that of a man whose arrow strayed.

Nightingale, songsmith,
on such a night as this by the shores of Proteus’ sea
the Spartan slave-women heard your song and wept,
and among them (who would have guessed it) Helen!
She, whom we sought for years along Scamander’s banks.
There on the desert’s cusp I touched her and she spoke to me:
“Lies”, she cried, “lies,
“I never stepped into the blue-prowed ship,
never trod glorious Ilium”.

Deep-girdled, sun-dappled hair, that long body,
shadows, smiles everywhere
on shoulders thighs knees,
the flaring skin, and those eyes
with their great lashes
– all there, on the bank of the Delta.
And in Ilium?
In Ilium, nothing – a simulacrum.
So the gods wished it.
And Paris embraced a shadow as if it had been flesh and blood,
while for ten long years we butchered one another over Helen.

Greece haemorrhaged.
So many bodies thrown
to the jaws of the sea, to the jaws of the earth:
so many souls
flung between the millstones like grains of wheat.
And blood bubbling up through river mud,
for a flaxen wave for a passing cloud
a butterfly’s wingbeat a swandown’s drift
all for an empty tunic, a Helen.
And what of my brother?
Nightingale nightingale nightingale,
what is a god? What’s not a god? What falls between the two?

“You cannot sleep in Platres for the nightingales”.

Sad bird,
on sea-girt Cyprus
which I was promised in memory of my homeland,
I landed alone with this fable,
if indeed it is a fable,
if it is true that men will never again
fall into the gods’ ancient snare;
if it is true
that in ages to come another Teucer,
some other Ajax Hecuba or Priam
or someone perhaps nameless, unknown, who yet
has seen Scamander heave with corpses,
will be spared the words
of messengers coming to say
that so much suffering so many lives
went spinning into the abyss
all for an empty tunic, for a Helen.
From Log Book, III (1955)
Translated from the Greek by John Stathatos
(unpublished)

βρηκα τη μεταφραση εδω

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λαικες αγορες

Οι φωτογραφιες ειναι απο τις αγορες: Cadiz στην Ανδαλουσια, απο την κεντρικη αγορα στα Χανια, απο διαφορα μερη στην Αθηνα, στη Θεσσαλονικη, στον Ωρωπο, στην Viktualienmarkt στο Μοναχο, και στο San Francisco στην Καλιφορνια.

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Culinary Institute of America Part I

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Culinary Institute of America Part II

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global (not) warming

Ξεφυλλιζοντας κατα το Γεναρη μερικα περιοδικα μοδας αιφνιδιαστηκα ομορφα με την διαφημηση της DIESEL. Λεω για δες τι κανουν να μας τραβηξουν την προσοχη .. πηρανε τα περιστερια και βαλανε παπαγαλακια.. Αργοτερα συνειδητοποιησα το νοημα της διαφημησης οταν διαβασα το ” global warming ready ” . Εψαξα και βρηκα μια σειρα διαφημησεων πανω σ’ αυτο το θεμα. Ανακαλυψα οτι υπαρχει και καποια δυσανασχετιση εκ μερους πολλων οικολογων και φυσικα δεν τους αδικω. Ειναι σοβαρο θεμα. Το κλιμα μεταβαλλεται με γοργους ρυθμους. Λογω του φαινομενου τεραστιες ποσοτητες παγου στην Αλασκα και στην Ανταρκτικη λυωνουν με αποτελεσμα να ανερχεται η μεση σταθμη της θαλασσας. Κατα τη διαρκεια του 20ου αιωνα .. μετρησεις απο παλλιροιογραφους εδειχναν μια συχνοτητα 2.8 χιλιοστα το χρονο στην ανυψωση της σταθμης της θαλασσας. Σημερα τα ιδια οργανα αλλα και δορυφορικες μετρησεις ακριβειας της τοπογραφιας του υγρου στοιχειου ειτε σε μορφη ωκεανων ειτε σε μορφη παγου δειχνουν μια αυξηση της συχνοτητας σε 4 χιλιοστα το χρονο. Με αυτη τη συχνοτητα σε μερικες δεκαετιες πολλες παρακτιες περιοχες θα εξαφανιστουν. Στο τελος του αιωνα που διανυουμε η μεση θερμοκρασια θα ειναι 3-9 βαθμους (Φαρεναιτ) υψηλοτερη. Μεγαλες θερμοκρασιες ευνοουν ανυδριες, πυρκαγιες και την εξαπλωση ασθενειων. Οι υψηλες θερμοκρασιες στην Ευρωπη προκαλεσαν πανω απο 20,000 θανατους το 2003. Ανυδρια ισον μειωση καλλιεργειων ισον υποσιτισμος ισον πολεμοι επιβιωσης. Διαταραχτηκε ο κυκλος “ταξιδι του νερου” οπως το μαθαιναμε στα σχολεια, και αρχισε ο φαυλος κυκλος του φαινομενου του θερμοκηπιου. Και φυσικα δεν ειμαστε καθολου ετοιμοι γι αυτο.

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